An Overview:

Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis.

Acute hepatitis lasts under six months, while chronic hepatitis last longer.

Most liver damage is caused by 3 hepatitis viruses, called hepatitis A, B, and c. However, hepatitis can also be caused by alcohol and other toxins and infections, as well as from our own autoimmune process (the body attacks itself). About 250 million people globally are thought to be affected by hepatitis C, while 300 million people are though to be carriers of hepatitis B.

Not all forms of hepatitis are infections. Alcohol, medicines, and chemical may be bad for the liver and causes inflammation. A person may have a genetic problem, a metabolic disorder, or an immune related injury. Obesity can be a cause of liver damage which can lead to inflammation.  

These are known as non-infectious, because they cannot spread form person-to person.

How many types of hepatitis are there?

There are five main types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus, A, B, C, D, and E – plus types X and G.

  • Hepatitis A – this is caused by eating infected food or water. The food or water is infected with a virus called HAV (Hepatitis A Virus). Anal-oral contact during sex can also be a cause. Nearly everyone who develops Hepatitis A makes a full recovery- it does not lead to chronic disease.
  • Hepatitis B – This is an STD (sexually transmitted disease). It is caused by the virus HBV (Hepatitis B virus) and is spread by contact with infected blood, semen, and some other body fluids. You get Hepatitis.

Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person (unprotected sex means without using a condom) using a syringe that was previously used by an infected person (most commonly happens with drug addicts and people who inject steroids). Having your skin perforated with unsterilized needles, as might be the case when getting a tattoo, or being accident in this way. Sharing personal items, such as toothbrush or razor, with an infected person.

A baby can become infected through his mother’s milk if she is infected.

Being bitten by someone who is infected.

The liver of a person infected with Hepatitis B swells. The patient can suffer serious liver damage due to infection, resulting in cancer. For some patients the hepatitis becomes chronic (very long-term or lifelong). Donated blood is always tested for Hepatitis B.

  • Hepatitis C – Hepatitis C is usually spread through direct contact with the blood of an person who has disease. It is caused by the virus HCV (Hepatitis C Virus). The liver can swell and become damaged. In hepatitis C, unlike hepatitis B, liver cancer risk is only increased in people with cirrhosis and only 20% of help C patients get cirrhosis. Faeces is never a route of transmission in hepatitis C, Donated blood is also tested for Hepatitis C.
  • Hepatitis D – only a person who is already infected with Hepatitis B can become infected with Hepatitis D. It is caused by the virus HDV (Hepatitis D Virus). Infection is through contact with infected blood, unprotected sex, and perforation of the skin with infected needles. The liver of a person with      Hepatitis D swells.
  • Hepatitis E – a person can become infected by drinking water that contains HEV (Hepatitis E Virus). The liver swells but there are no long term consequence. Infection is also possible through anal-oral sex.
  • Hepatitis X – If a hepatitis cannot be attributed to the viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E, it is called Hepatitis X, in other words, hepatitis of an unknown virus.
  • Hepatitis G – This is a type of hepatitis caused by the Hepatitis G Virus (HGV). Usually there are no symptoms. When there are symptoms they are very mild.

          What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis

Many people with Hepatitis experience either mild symptoms or  none at all. Remember that an infected person’s faeces are always  infectious to other people. When symptoms appear, they usually do  so about 15 to 180 days after the person has become infected.

       The acute phase of hepatitis symptoms

The initial phase of hepatitis is called the acute phase. The symptoms are like a mild flu, and may include: Diarrhoea, Fatigue, Loss of appetite, Mild fever, Muscle or joint aches, Nausea, Slight abdominal pain vomiting, weight loss.

The acute phase is not usually dangerous, unless it develops into the fulminant or rapidly progressing form, which can lead to death.

As the patient gets worse, these symptoms may follow:

Circulation problems (only toxic/drug induced hepatitis) Dark urine, Dizzines (only toxic/drug induced hepatitis) Drowsiness (only toxic/drug induced hepatitis), Hives, Itchy skin, Light colored faeces, the faeces may contain pus yellow skin, whites of eyes, tongue (jaundice) patient outcomes after the acute phase depend on various factors, especially the type of hepatitis.

Treatment of hepatitis

Hepatitis A –  There is  no treatment specifically for hepatitis A. Doctor will advise the patient to abstain from alcohol and drugs during the recovery. The vast majority of patients with Hepatitis. A will recover spontaneously.

Hepatitis B –  A patient with Hepatitis  B needs to rest. He will require a diet that is high in protein and carbohydrate – this is to repair damaged liver cells, as well as a to protect the liver. If this is not enough, the doctor may prescribe interferon. Interferon is an antiviral agent.

Hepatitis C – A patient with Hepatitis C will be prescribed pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

Hepatitis D or E – So far, there is no effective treatment for either Hepatitis D or E.

Non –Viral Hepatitis – If the patient has non-viral hepatitis, the doctor needs to remove the harmful; substance. It will be flushed out of the stomach by hyperventilation or induced vomiting. Patients with drug induced hepatitis may be prescribed corticosteroids.

Prevention of Hepatitis 

How to prevent Hepatitis A

Wash your hands with soap after going to the toilet; only consume food that has just been cooked; only drink commercially bottled water, or boiled water if you unsure of local sanitation; only eat fruits that you can peel if you are somewhere sanitation is unreliable; only eat raw vegetables if you are sure they have been cleaned/disinfected thoroughly; Get a vaccine for Hepatitis A if you travel to places where hepatitis may be endemic.

How to prevent Hepatitis B

Tell the partner if you are a carrier or try to find out whether he/she is a carrier, practice safe sex. Only use clean syringes that have not been used by anyone else, Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or manicure instruments, Have a Hepatitis B series of vaccine if you are at risk only allow well sterilized skin perforating equipment (tattoo, acupuncture, etc).

How to prevent Hepatitis C

If you are infected do not let others share your toothbrush, razor, manicure equipment. If you are infected cover open wounds; Do not share needle, toothbrushes, or manicure equipment, if your skin is to be pierced, make sure equipment is well sterilized (tattoo, etc.). Go easy on the alcohol; Do not share drug equipment.

How to prevent Hepatitis D

Use the same guidelines as for Hepatitis B. only a person who is infected with Hepatitis B can become infected with Hepatitis D.

How to Prevent Hepatitis E

Do the same as you would to protect yourself from Hepatitis A infection.

How to prevent Alcoholic Hepatitis

Go easy on the alcohol, or abstain from consuming alcohol

How to prevent Toxic/Drug Induced Hepatitis

Make sure you know about the lethal contents of all chemicals,

Make sure the spray is not pointing at you,

Make sure you wear protective gear if you have to.


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