IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE FOR INFANTS

Vaccine Age of

vaccination

Description of the Infection Disease
BCG

(Tuberculosis)

 

Birth

Airborne. Usually causes pulmonary infection, but can spread to many other organs, causing serious illness, death and disability. An untreated person with active TB disease can infect on average between 10 and 15 people every year in 2005, 30% of global incidence of TB occurred in Africa amounting over 2.5 million new infections (WHO)
DTwp (Pertussis/

Whooping Cough)

 

6, 10, 14

weeks

Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria that live in the mouth, nose, and throat, many children who contact pertussis have coughing spells that last four eight weeks.

Very dangerous in infants. In 2000, approximately 39  million new cases emerged and the disease claimed 297,000 lives worldwide (WHO)

Diphtheria: an upper respiratory tract infection with throat swelling and an membrane that can cause death by asphyxiation.

Hepatitis B Birth; 10, 16 weeks Hepatitis B is a potentially life- threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis, it can cause chronic liver disease and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.

Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and more than 350 million have chronic (long term) liver infections.

A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. Hepatitis B vaccine is 95% effective in preventing HBV infection and its chronic consequences, and is the first vaccine against a major human cancer. (WHO)

Measles 9 months Measles is highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus.

It remains a leading cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. An estimated 197 000 people died from measles in 2007, mostly children under the age of five. It is a common precursor of nutritional blindness and noma.

Meningitis High-risk

groups

Meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the thin lining that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. Several different bacteria can cause meningitis and Nesseria meningitides is one of the most important (WHO).
OPV

(Polio)

Birth; 6, 10, 16, weeks Mainly affects children under five years of age. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis.

Among those paralyzed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilize. Persistent pockets of polio transmission in India, northern Nigeria and Afghanistan and Pakistan are key epidemiological challenges (WHO)

TT

(Tetanus toxoid)

1st contact pregnancy;

TT2 + 6

Months

after; TT3 +

1 years after

Tetanus is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, the spores of which are widespread in the environment. The disease is caused by the action of a neurotoxin, produced by the bacteria when they grow in the absence of oxygen, e.g in dirty wounds or in the umbilical cord if it is cut with a non-sterile instrument.

Tetanus is characterized by muscle spasms, initially in the jaw muscles. As the disease progresses, mild stimuli may trigger generalized titanic seizure-like activity, which contributes to serious complications and eventually death unless supportive treatment is given.

Tetanus can be prevented by the administration of tetanus toxiod needs to be given to the mother before or during pregnancy, and clean delivery and cord care needs to be ensured (WHO)

Yellow Fever 9 months Yellow fever is a viral disease, found in tropical regions of African and the Americans.

There is no specific treatment or yellow fever. Vaccination is highly recommended as a preventive measure for travelers to, and people living in, endemic countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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