Current Disease Outbreak

In 19th March 2017, a total of 1407  suspected cases of Meningitis and 211 deaths have been reported from 40 local government areas in five states of Nigeria. The most affected age group is 5 to 14 year olds and they are responsible for about half of the reported cases.

DEFINITION OF MENINGITIS

Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spiral cord. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacterial or other organisms.

Meningitis can be life threatening because of the proxity of the inflammation to the brain and Spinal cord therefore; the condition is classified as a medical emergency.

RISK FACTORS FOR BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

  • Age: adults older than 60 years of age and children younger than 5 years are especially prone to meningitis
  • Alcoholism
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Immunosuppressant (transplant patients on drugs)
  • Head trauma
  • Cancer patient receiving chemotherapy
  • Overcrowding (military barrack, dormitories)
  • Shunts in patient with hydrocephalus.

   TYPES OF MENINGITIS

  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Viral Meningitis
  • TB Meningitis

      Prevention of Meningitis

  • Stay away from people who have it.
  • Wash your hands often if you have meningitis or are taking care of someone who does.
  • Keep people with meningitis separate from other people in the home.
  • Avoid contact with wild animal. Take steps to prevent bites from bugs such as mosquitoes and ticks that might carry disease causing bacterias or viruses………
  • If you come in close contact with someone or people who has bacterial meningitis, call your doctor. Taking antibiotic may keep you from getting the illness. However if your contact is only caused for instance at work place or at school you don’t need to take antibiotics.

     SYMPTOMS OF MENINGITIS

  • Fever, cold hands and feet
  • Refusing food and vomiting
  • Convulsions/seizures
  • Pale, blotchy skin, spots/rash
  • Stiff neck, dislike bright lights
  • Early symptoms can include: Fever, headache, vomiting muscle pain and fever.

TRANSMISSION OF MENINGITIS

The bacterial meningitis are transmitted from person to person through droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from carriers, close and prolong contact such as kissing, sneezing or coughing on someone or lining in close contact with some who has it.

TREATMENT OF MENINGITIS

Bacterial meningitis is treated with intravenous antibiotics, there is no specific antibiotic for bacterial meningitis, it depends on the bacterial involved. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal agents.

Viral meningitis is not treated, it usually resolves on its own.

Symptoms usually go away within two weeks

There are no serious long-term problems associated with Viral meningitis.

Complications of meningitis   

  • Seizures
  • Hearing loss
  • Brain damage
  • Kidney failure

 

A state called Kwara state in Nigeria recorded Cholera outbreak, in July this year 2017. Suspected  cases were reported to be 1,617, laboratory samples were confirmed,and 17 deaths were recorded.Year 1-5 age were the most affected.

The habit of good environmental hygiene is a first step in preventing Cholera outbreaks in a community or region.